Why are keyboards built the way they are?

Most of us use computers on a daily basis. We are so used to them we take almost everything around them for granted. Even the shape of the keyboard.

Damn, we are so familiar with this shape we even use this keyboard on smartphones! The younger ones do not even know where this shape comes from (some of them are curious enough to wonder).

How was the QWERTY layout (and all others) created? And why are the columns shifted from a row to the next?

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